If property is a thing and property rights are rights over things, then what «things» can be goods? Penner gives an answer in the separability thesis, which he formulates as follows: But the community also has its own bundle of rights. These rights could include: Despite the long existence of this broader concept of property, there are scholars who still maintain the narrower definition of property as a thing.17 While Gray argues that property is not a thing, but a concentration of power over things (see below),18 Penner asserts that «property is what the average citizen. thinks: the right to a thing».19 He argues that the concept of property as a set of rights (i.e. not as a thing, but as a definition of the relationship between two people) is the root of the identity crisis of property; It is not enough to define a particular legal relationship and is not useful for judges. For example, it asks which of the rights of the whole are essential and is a critical number of rights substantial? Unlike Things in possession, Things are not tangible in action and cannot be physically possessed. Examples of choices in action include debt, shares in companies, and intellectual property. According to Holdsworth, the term was originally used to cover rights associated with a personal act, such as: Trespass; It was only later that it was applied to the real action.31 In the sixteenth century, «choices in action» were extended from a right of action to documents that were the necessary proof of such a right»32 – so that bonds and later shares, insurance policies and similar intangible assets were chosen in action. Private property rights can be granted to an individual, which can be understood as a person, a group of people, a business, or a non-profit organization. This social dimension of the legal concept of property, the idea that we do not look at property in isolation but in the context of the owner`s relations with others, corresponds to the statement in Chapter 2 that the individual`s right to self-determination does not exist in a vacuum, but in the context of relations with other persons. This is the contextual focus captured by the ecological paradigm in Chapter 1. 5. Confidentiality.
The Employee agrees that, during or after the term of this Agreement, the Employee will not directly or indirectly disclose to any person or entity, nor copy, reproduce or use any trade secret (as defined below) or confidential information (as defined below) or any other information treated as confidential by the Company, except as required by applicable law or a court order. prescribed. Known, knowledge or acquisition by the employee during the period of employment of the employee by the Company. For purposes of this Agreement, «Confidential Information» means any trade secret, knowledge, data or know-how of the Company, any of its affiliates or third parties belonging to the Company or any of its affiliates, as well as any non-public technical, training, financial and/or commercial information treated as confidential by the Company or any of its affiliates. that such information, knowledge, trade secrets or data was designed, created, discovered or developed by the employee under this Agreement. For purposes of this Agreement, «trade secrets» include, but are not limited to, formulas, concepts, models, processes, designs, devices, software, systems, customer lists, training manuals, marketing, sales or service plans, business plans, marketing plans, financial information or the compilation of information used in the Company`s business or in the activities of any of its affiliates. Any information of the Company or any of its affiliates that is not readily available to the public will be considered a trade secret unless the Company notifies the employee otherwise in writing. The Employee acknowledges that all Confidential Information is the property of the Company and constitutes a special, valuable and unique asset of the Company`s business and that the employment of the Employee by the Company has, creates and will continue to create a relationship of trust between the Employee and the Company with respect to the Confidential Information.
In addition, the employee must immediately inform the Company of any information of which he or she is aware that may indicate that the confidentiality of the confidential information has been lost. In this case, the employee must take all reasonable steps in his or her power to limit the extent of the loss. I have a B.S. in Accounting and a B.A. in Philosophy from Virginia Tech (2009). I received my J.D. from the University of Virginia School of Law in 2012. I am an associate member of the Virginia Bar and an active member of the DC Bar. I currently work as an independent legal advisor and lawyer. My clients are primarily start-ups, for which I undertake different types of legal work, including negotiating and drafting regulations, preparing company agreements and partnership agreements, assisting in setting up businesses in new states and setting up state-registered companies, employment assistance, Preparing Non-Disclosure Agreements, assisting with private placement offerings and researching intellectual property issues, local regulations, data protection laws, corporate governance and many other aspects of law, as required. Previously, I practiced law at a small securities law firm in Washington DC and worked at Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLC. My work experience is dynamic and includes many short and long-term experiences in areas such as running my own blog, freelance writing, and dog walking.
My diverse background has given me in-depth skills that can be easily adapted to new areas of work and demonstrate my ability to learn quickly for a variety of clients. In a regime that has no private property rights, property and property rights are forcibly given. Property rights in such situations are usually administered by the government. In a system without private property rights, the government decides who can interact with, be excluded or benefit from property. As a rule, ownership is given for political gain and not for economic gain. In this quote, Penner essentially repeats his point mentioned earlier in this chapter, namely that the social and legal dimensions of property are closely related. Warning of the consequences of going «too far to the opposite extreme,» he draws attention to the need for a conceptual framework that defines property in the legal sense.